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Case of vaso-occlusive retinopathy in Kikuchi-Fujimoto and lupus overlap syndrome
  1. Nima Ghadiri and
  2. Miles Stanford
  1. Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Eye Unit, Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals NHS Trust, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Nima Ghadiri; nimaghadiri29{at}


A 35-year-old woman presented with a constellation of systemic symptoms: rashes, weight loss, arthralgia and mouth ulcers. Six months afterwards, she experienced bilateral and sequential reduction in vision, and was found to have bilateral vaso-occlusive retinopathy, with critical macular ischaemia in the left eye. Her serological markers were consistent with a diagnosis of lupus. A lymph node biopsy confirmed Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, a benign condition of unknown cause characterised by fever, cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy. Given that this overlap syndrome was associated with a number of systemic features and had affected the eyes, an immunosuppressive regime with rituximab was considered prudent. This rendered her vasculitis stable and non-progressive, and there were signs of partial retinal microvasculature recovery on optical coherence tomography angiography. There is increasing evidence of an overlap between Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease and systemic lupus erythematosus, which is associated with vaso-occlusive retinopathy. In these instances, a multidisciplinary approach is warranted, with consideration of appropriate treatment in order to prevent harmful sequelae of vasculitis. Our treatment with rituximab abated the disease process, although close follow-up is paramount to monitor results and side-effects of treatment.

  • retina
  • vasculitis
  • systemic lupus erythematosus
  • ophthalmology
  • pharmacology and therapeutics

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  • Contributors NG and MS both managed this patient, with MS being the supervising consultant. NG wrote the draft for this case report, and MS reviewed this.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Disclaimer Case reports provide a valuable learning resource for the scientific community and can indicate areas of interest for future research. They should not be used in isolation to guide treatment choices or public health policy.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.