Table 1

Summary of different types of cognitive bias encountered in this clinical scenario

Type of biasDescription
Base rate biasThis occurs in clinical practice when the underlying incidence of conditions or population-based knowledge, related to ethnicity, nationality, age, gender and other factors, is neglected.40
Anchoring biasThis occurs when clinicians are unable to adjust diagnostic probabilities as new conflicting information surfaces.42
Confirmation biasThis occurs when clinicians selectively choose information gained that fits their preconceived diagnosis, instead of analysing them fairly.40
Specialty biasThis occurs when clinicians prioritise differential diagnoses within their specialty due to confinement by their domain knowledge.43
Diagnostic momentumThis occurs when clinicians continue a clinical course initiated by prior clinicians without independently assessing all information available.40