Table 1

Vaccine-associated kidney diseases6

VaccineKidney disease/pathology reported in literature
Influenza
  • Nephrotic syndrome: MCD, MN

  • Rhabdomyolysis with ATN, AIN

  • Pauci-immune GN/renal vasculitis

  • HSP

  • Kidney graft rejection

Hepatitis B
  • Nephrotic syndrome: MCD

  • Lupus nephritis: Class IV

Pneumococcal
  • Crescentic GN due to anti-GBM disease

  • Nephrotic syndrome: MCD

Pertussis
  • Renal vasculitis

Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus
  • Cryoglobulinaemia and proliferative GN

Tetanus diphtheria poliomyelitis
  • Nephrotic syndrome: MCD

Smallpox
  • Nephrotic syndrome: MN

Measles
  • Nephrotic syndrome: MCD

Rabies
  • Nephrotic syndrome

Meningococcal
  • Relapse of nephrotic syndrome

BCG
  • Renal granulomas

  • AIN with or without granulomas

  • HSP

  • Nephrotic syndrome: MN

  • AIN, acute interstitial nephritis; ATN, acute tubular necrosis; GBM, glomerular basement membrane; GN, glomerulonephritis; HSP, Henoch–Schonlein purpura; MCD, minimal change disease; MN, membranous nephropathy.