Table 1

Summary of case reports of BD initially presenting with psychiatric manifestations and more delayed neurological symptoms

N=14Prevalence (%)Age (years)±SD
(minimum–maximum)
GenderFemale1071.4
Male428.6
Mean age at diagnosis of BD70.79±11.56 (55 – 89)
Risk factorsHypertension964.3
Diabetes mellitus535.7
Congestive heart failure428.6
Cerebrovascular accident321.4
Others214.3
None214.3
Dyslipidaemia17.1
Coronary artery disease17.1
Psychiatric manifestationsMean age at diagnosis69.58±12.77 (50 – 88)
Depressive smptoms1178.6
Psychotic symptoms642.9
Agitation/aggression428.6
Behavioural disturbances of frontal lobe321.4
Manic/hypomanic symptoms214.3
Suicidal behaviours214.3
Neurological manifestationsMean age at diagnosis70.77±12.27 (52 – 89)
Forgetfulness/memory impairment964.3
Gait abnormalities750
Extrapyramidal642.9
Urinary incontinence642.9
Frontal lobe/dysexecutive642.9
Pyramidal535.7
Constructional ability impairment428.6
Pseudobulbar symptoms321.4
Neuroimaging findingsPeriventricular WM hypodensities1285.7
Frontal/ parietal lobe hypodensities642.9
Ventricular enlargement535.7
Cortical/gyri/cerebellar atrophy214.3
Widening of gyri and/or sulci17.1
Cortical hypodensities17.1
TreatmentAntidepressants857.1
Antipsychotics428.6
Mood stabilisers17.1
  • BD, Binswanger’s disease; WM, white matter.