Table 1

Summary of the available published literature suggesting microvascular dysfunction in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

AuthorsJournalYearEvidence of microvascular dysfunction
Kurisu et al 24 JACC (Journal of the American College of Cardiology) 2003Abnormal TIMI frame counts (TFC) in all major coronary vessels in 28 patients.
Bybee et al 25 AJC (American Journal of Cardiology) 2004Abnormal TFC in all major coronary vessels in 16 patients.
Fazio et al 26 J Clin Monit Comput (Journal of clinical monitoring and computing) 2010Abnormal TFC in all major coronary vessels in 23 of 24 patients.
Daniels and Fearon27 CCI (Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions) 2011Elevation of IMR reported in one case report.
Layland et al 28 CRM (Cardiovascular revascularization medicine) 2012Reversible elevation of IMR in one case report.
Khalid et al 9 Int J Cardiol (International Journal of Cardiology) 2015Corrected TFC in all major coronary vessels in 16 patients.
Warisawa et al 29 J Circ (Circulation Journal) 2016Reversible elevation of IMR in one case report.
Rivero et al 12 JAMA Cardiology(Journal of the American Medical Association :Cardiology) 2017Prospective demonstration of time-related improvement of IMR in 15 patients.
Loffi et al 30 BioMed Res Int (Biomed research international) 2018Retrospective analysis of TFC, blush grade and Quantitative myocardial Blush score (QuBE) score in 27 patients.
  • IMR, index of myocardial resistance.