Table 1

The CARE guidelines checklist

The narrative: A case report tells a story in a narrative format that includes the presenting concerns, clinical findings, diagnoses, interventions, outcomes (including adverse events) and follow-up. The narrative should include a discussion of the rationale for any conclusions and any take-away messages.
Item nameItem no.Brief description
Title1The words ‘case report’ (or ‘case study’) should appear in the title along with phenomenon of greatest interest (eg, symptom, diagnosis, test, intervention)
Keywords2The key elements of this case in 2–5 words
  1. a) Introduction—What does this case add?

  2. b) Case Presentation:

    • – The main symptoms of the patient

    • – The main clinical findings

    • – The main diagnoses and interventions

    • – The main outcomes

  3. c) Conclusion—What were the main ‘take-away’ lessons from this case?

IntroductionBrief background summary of this case referencing the relevant medical literature
Patient information
  • a) Demographic information (eg, age, gender, ethnicity, occupation)

  • b) Main symptoms of the patient (his or her chief symptoms)

  • c) Medical, family, and psychosocial history—including diet, lifestyle, and genetic information whenever possible, and details about relevant comorbidities including past interventions and their outcomes

Clinical findingsDescribe the relevant physical examination (PE) findings
TimelineDepict important dates and times in this case (table or figure).
Diagnostic assessment
  • a) Diagnostic methods (eg, PE, laboratory testing, imaging, questionnaires)

  • b) Diagnostic challenges (eg, financial, language/cultural)

  • c) Diagnostic reasoning including other diagnoses considered

  • d) Prognostic characteristics (eg, staging) where applicable

Therapeutic intervention
  • a) Types of intervention (eg, pharmacologic, surgical, preventive, self-care)

    • – Administration of intervention (eg, dosage, strength, duration)

    • – Changes in intervention (with rationale)

Follow-up and outcomes10 
  • a) Summarise the clinical course of all follow-up visits including

    • – Clinician and patient-assessed outcomes

    • – Important follow-up test results (positive or negative)

    • – Intervention adherence and tolerability (and how this was assessed)

    • – Adverse and unanticipated events

  • a) The strengths and limitations of the management of this case

  • b) The relevant medical literature

  • c) The rationale for conclusions (including assessments of cause and effect)

  • d) The main ‘take-away’ lessons of this case report

Patient perspective12 The patient should share his or her perspective or experience whenever possible
Informed consent13 Did the patient give informed consent? Please provide if requested