Table 1

Summary of clinical, haematological and radiological characteristics of cystoadenoma of the biliary ducts

ReferencesClinical variablesDescription
13 68SymptomsJaundice, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, intolerance to fatty food, cholangitis
9Haematological testsElevated total bilirubin, AST, ALT, ALP
9Serum tumour markersOccasional elevated Ca 19.9 and or CEA
1 2 4 11 12Endoluminal tumour markersLevels of Ca 19.9 and CEA might be elevated in the fluid aspirated from the lumen of the cysts
4Radiological findings: CTMulti-loculated, multi-septated intrabiliary neoplasms. Average size at the time of diagnosis=15 cm. On CT scan, the content of the cyst is usually hypoattenuating. Calcifications within the cyst walls and septation have been described. Possible irregular wall enhancement
10Radiological findings: MRIT1 and T2 signal intensity of the intracystic fluid can be variable depending on the protein concentration and presence or absence of blood
6HistologyPresence of cysts lined with mucinous cuboidal or columnar epithelium. Ovarian-type stroma present in 85% of cases, exclusively in females
16Differential diagnosisHydatid cyst, biliary cystoadenocarcinoma, intraductal papillary mucinous tumour (IPMT)
24 6 911 18Natural historyMalignant transformation into cystoadenocarcinoma or sarcoma has been described. Cystoadenomas with ovarian-type stroma have better prognosis
  • ALP, alkaline phosphatase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate amino transferase; CA 19.9, carbohydrate antigen 19.9; CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; GGT, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase.