eLetters

74 e-Letters

published between 2018 and 2021

  • Response from authors

    The association between heart failure and energy drink consumption is based on the entire clinical course rather than the presentation alone. The patient remains in renal failure with renal biochemistry similar to presentation and has not received renal replacement therapy for some time. Despite this, the patient is no longer in heart failure with a significant improvement in cardiac function occurring prior to the introduction of heart failure medications - carvedilol, hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrite. The clinical course of spontaneous recovery was similar to the cited case report from Belzile and colleagues and hence our reason for bringing this to attention and contributing to greater awareness. We welcome the comments and debate as there is no test to confirm the relationship to energy drink intake and therefore extensive clinical characterisation is required to exclude alternative causes of severe heart failure. Severe heart failure which improves spontaneously to this magnitude - LVEF 9% to 51% is particularly rare.

  • Response from authors

    Dear Sir/Madam,

    Thank you for your comments

    Please see below for clarification to your queries:

    1) What was Central Venous Pressure:

    The CVP pressure was not measured as the patient was relatively well. Are you perhaps referring to JVP which was unremarkable.

    2) If patient was, presumably Conscious, Oriented, able to take Food and Fluids by Mouth, could the Intravenous Administration of Fluids be avoided?

    It is possible that IV fluids could have been avoided but in view of his AKI it was felt prudent to rehydrate with IV fluids. We appreciate that management in this scenario will differ.

    3) How did the Elevated Blood Pressure evolved during Hospitalization, either with or without Medications.

    He had only one dose of amlodipine as inpatient and didn’t require any further doses for BP control. On discharge his Blood pressure was within normal limits and his GP was advised to continue monitoring his blood pressure as he had previously been doing.

    4) What was Patient's Diet and Fluid Intake Both Quantitative and Qualitative during the Hospitalization?

    AKI resolved within 24 hours of admission so exact fluid intake, urinary output and diet were not documented.

    5) Whether the Patient took any Formal or Alternative Medicines or Home Remedies for Coryza he had Two Weeks before Episode of Shortness of Breath, that could have caused Autoimmune Hemolysis?

    The patient had not...

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  • Response from authors
    Thank you for your correspondence. 
     
    We reported this case as a possible early association during the first wave when it was impossible to discern whether there was a true connection between COVID and SSNHL, let alone determine the incidence. The paper was clear that direct causation wasn’t proven, but it served to highlight the importance of prompt treatment of SSNHL which is often associated with viral aetiologies. 
     
    The case report was written to create early awareness of a possible link. Since then, a BRC funded team in Manchester have published a systematic review linking the two and are also undertaking a year-long study into the association. An NIHR/BRC team in Nottingham are doing similarly. 
     
    ...
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  • Treat all Caffeinated Beverages Equally

    The authors implicate caffeine as the causative agent of the cardiomyopathy in this case, caffeine being the main active ingredient within energy drinks. They ask that we enquire about energy drinks within our social histories; consumption of caffeinated products indeed not part of a standard cardiovascular history (1).

    It is therefore conspicuous that within the article there are no calls to enquire about other, more widely used caffeine containing products, specifically tea and coffee. Dare I say, we would be unlikely to baulk at the idea of a patient drinking three or four coffees in a day. In fact, on the wards we offer patients tea or coffee eight times a day, yet think little of the caffeine burden we are imposing upon them. This almost tacit caffeine consumption is unlikely to make it into the medical notes, yet these patients would potentially be consuming levels of caffeine far in excess of the quantity consumed in this case report.

    We seem to apply different value judgements to different drinks, assuming those drinking excess caffeine from expensive coffee machines are doing so knowingly, and as part of a healthy lifestyle. Yet we don’t afford those choosing to consume energy drinks with the same level of ability to make an informed choice. We medicalise the consumption of such drinks, assuming those using them must be doing so for sinister reasons.

    We should treat all caffeinated products equally, given there is no pharmacological differen...

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  • Response to eletter
    Thanks for the comments on our manuscript entitled "Plexiform neurofibromatosis of penis: a rare presentation of type 1 neurofibromatosis."
     
    We think that this is a very good suggestion for treating such cases. Selumetinib has been found to be effective to treat neurofibromatosis type 1 in children 2 years of age and older. It is an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase and has been recommended as a first-line therapy approved for paediatric neurofibromatosis patients who have inoperable and bulky lesions. 
    Selumetinib therapy was a good option for this particular child but there were several reasons to choose surgery for this patient. Firstly the deformity was unsightly and grotesque considering the almost double length of the penis was leading to social discrimination, peer pressure and solitary life for this child. The patient has been rehabilitated with just one surgical operation in which after debulking the penile size is within socially acceptable limits. S...
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  • Additional ST elevation in V1 and mild inferolateral ST depression

    A close comparison of baseline and exercise ECGs show mild ST elevation in V1 and mild inferolateral ST depression. Though the ST depression is mostly slow upsloping type, in lead I and V6 it is almost horizontal. The magnified view of the ECG makes ST elevation in V1 quite clear.

  • Aza induced hyperglycemia

    The author proposes two possible mechanisms for Aza induced hyperglycemia 1. Impaired beta cell function in pancreas via epigenetic mechanism 2. Increased secretion of cortisol. I suggest another possibility. A recent paper by Strand et al reports that Aza, a DNMT1 inhibitor, is a potent inducer of PTEN (this work done in vascular smooth muscle cells). It is well known that PTEN is an inhibitor of downstream elements of the insulin pathway, specifically PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway and this results in insulin resistance. I suggest that the hyperglycemic activity of Aza is by PTEN induction of insulin resistance.
    Strand KA, Lu S, Mutryn MF, et al. High Throughput Screen Identifies the DNMT1 (DNA Methyltransferase-1) Inhibitor, 5-Azacytidine, as a Potent Inducer of PTEN. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2020;40:1854–1869.

  • A Ticking Time Bomb – incidental finding of a giant thoracoabdominal aneurysm

    Dear Editor,

    Giant aortic aneurysm is a rare clinical entity. They may present with typical features of chest pain or abdominal pain, or most feared complications with dissection and rupture. However, an asymptomatic and unruptured giant thoracic aneurysm is extremely rare with only two case reports in the literature.

    I had a similar case which an 80-year-old lady admitted to a local district general hospital with a 5 day history of productive cough with shivers, which she was tested positive for COVID-19 on admission.

    Diagnostic workup demonstrated an incidental finding of a giant TAAA. Her case was referred to a tertiary hospital for vascular Multidisciplinary Team (MDT) discussion and planning.

    It was decided that for her to have pre-operative assessment and MDT discussion after her recovery from infection to have a definitive management of the TAAA. The patient is currently being managed supportively in hospital.

    According to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), asymptomatic and 5.5 cm or larger aneurysm should be considered for repair. The case should be discussed in terms of the overall balance of benefits and risks with repair and conservative management, based on the current status of health and the expected future health. In this case, it was deemed that the risk of proceeding with repair at present outweighed the benefits.

    Incidental finding of a giant AAA/TAAA is rare. It emphasises the importance...

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  • Utilization of the Brighton Collaboration consensus case definition for the standardized assessment of sensorineural hearing loss in COVID-19 related hearing loss

    To the authors:
    We read with interest the article entitled “Sudden irreversible hearing loss post COVID-19”.1 In this article, the authors presented an unusual case of a 45 year-old gentleman with sudden-onset sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) after COVID-19 infection and treatment. In their literature review, five other case reports were cited with hearing loss noted after COVID-19.2-6 The patient in the case report experienced a decrease in his left sided hearing 1 week after his intensive care unit stay for COVID-19 treatment. His initial hearing loss was evaluated at the bedside with a tuning fork examination showing negative Rinne’s test on the side of reported hearing loss, and Weber’s test lateralizing to the side opposite to his hearing loss, which is consistent with SNHL of the affected side. He then had a 7 day treatment course of 60mg oral Prednisone daily in addition to a series of intratympanic steroid injection. His hearing loss was documented with elevated hearing thresholds of 65, 75, 75, and 85 dB at 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz.
    As multiple countries across all continents are facing the effects of the pandemic, our understanding of the various immediate and long-term complications of COVID-19 is evolving. SNHL is one of these complications. The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has developed a Brighton Collaboration case definition of SNHL to be utilized in the evaluation of adverse events following immunization, which can also be...

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  • More to investigate and more to treat

    We read the article published by Jaikaran O. et al on ‘Portomesenteric thrombosis after robotic sleeve gastrectomy’ with great interest. The reported about a morbid obese patient having porto-mesentric thrombosis after robotic sleeve gastrectomy due to obesity and mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutation. However, we have few factors to report on this aspect.

    Firstly, MTHFR enzyme dysfunction leads to hyperhomocysteinemia which leads to hypercoagulation state. Yet, the magnitude of this state is affected via degree of enzyme deficiency/dysfunction which is dependent on presence of heterogeneous/ homogenous mutation in enzyme gene. So, the authors must assess for the presence of hyperhomocysteinemia along with assessment of mutation.[1,2] Also the genetic homogeneity of the mutation must be assessed as heterogeneous mutation will have less effect on blood homocysteine levels.[3]

    Next, the importance of folic acid for management of thrombotic state due to hyperhomocysteinemia must be considered. The patient has undergone sleeve gastrectomy which may further aggravate her vitamin and micronutrient deficiency. The administration of folic acid (instead of aspirin) will decrease the blood homocysteine levels and reduce the risk of hypercoagulation.[4]

    References:
    1. Friso S, Girelli D, Trabetti E, Stranieri C, Olivieri O, Tinazzi E, Martinelli N, Faccini G, Pignatti PF, Corrocher R. A1298C methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mu...

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