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Acute cholecystitis and gallbladder perforation leading to massive haemoperitoneum in a patient taking rivaroxaban
  1. Allan Kwok1,
  2. Tien Yew Chern2,
  3. Robert Winn1
  1. 1Department of Surgery, Wollongong Hospital, South Coast Mail Centre, New South Wales, Australia
  2. 2St George Hospital, Kogarah, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Allan Kwok, amf.kwok{at}


We present the case of an 80-year old man taking rivaroxaban for atrial fibrillation who sustained massive intra-abdominal bleeding in the setting of acute cholecystitis. CT scan on admission revealed evidence of active bleeding into the gallbladder lumen and gallbladder perforation. Immediate resuscitation was commenced with intravenous fluids, antibiotics and blood products. Despite attempts to correct coagulopathy, the patient’s haemodynamic status deteriorated and an emergency laparotomy was performed, with open cholecystectomy, washout and haemostasis. The patient had a largely uneventful recovery and was discharged on day 11 of admission. Patients with coagulopathies, whether pharmacological or due to underlying disease processes, are at very high risk of severe haemorrhagic complications and subsequent morbidity. As such, prompt recognition and operative management of haemorrhagic perforated cholecystitis is of crucial importance.

  • general surgery
  • gastrointestinal surgery
  • haematology (drugs and medicines)
  • contraindications and precautions

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  • Contributors AK was the primary author of the manuscript and was involved in the patient’s postoperative care. TYC assisted in the writing of the initial draft of the manuscript. RW was the primary surgeon involved in the patient’s care and was responsible for proof-reading the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.