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Primary renal diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma causing haemodialysis-dependent nephromegaly in a child
  1. Andrew Michael South1,2
  1. 1Department of Pediatrics, Section of Nephrology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
  2. 2Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Andrew Michael South, asouth{at}


A 4-year-old boy presented with fatigue and was found to have severe kidney injury requiring haemodialysis. A renal ultrasound demonstrated bilateral nephromegaly with mild loss of corticomedullary differentiation but preserved echogenicity. He had a persistent isolated monocytosis. Renal biopsy revealed extensive infiltration by primary renal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. He required haemodialysis for 18 days and received chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, rituximab and intrathecal methotrexate. He achieved remission with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 50 mL/min/1.73 m2, and his kidneys returned to normal size. Nephromegaly due to renal-limited haematolymphoid disease is extremely rare, especially in children.

  • dialysis
  • acute renal failure
  • paediatrics
  • paediatric oncology
  • haematology (incl blood transfusion)

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  • Contributors AMS was responsible for the conception and design, acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data, drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content and gives final approval of the version published. He agrees to be accountable for the article and to ensure that all questions regarding the accuracy or integrity of the article are investigated and resolved.

  • Funding The author has not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Parental/guardian consent obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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