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Invasive mediastinal aspergillosis presenting as superior vena cava syndrome in an immunocompetent patient
  1. Yasmin Rahim1,
  2. Aisha Memon2,
  3. Javaid Ahmed Khan1
  1. 1Department of Pulmonology and Critical Care, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
  2. 2Department of Histopathology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Yasmin Rahim, yrahim80{at}


Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a disease of the immunocompromised with a predilection for the lungs, although dissemination to all organs is possible. Its diagnosis remains a challenge due to the absence of specific clinical manifestations and laboratory findings. In most cases, diagnosis is eventually made via invasive methods. It carries with it a high mortality due to late diagnosis and delayed treatment. Here, we report a fascinating case of a young, otherwise healthy, immunocompetent patient that presented to us with superior vena cava syndrome and a mediastinal mass. It was anticipated that a malignancy would be found on further workup but, in fact, what was eventually discovered was a case of IA. Our report accentuates the significance of including IA as a differential while diagnosing a mediastinal mass in an immunocompetent host as patient outcome is determined by timely diagnosis and treatment.

  • Tb and other respiratory infections
  • lung cancer (oncology)

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  • Contributors The case report was conceptualised by JAK. YR reviewed patient records and examination along with literature research and writing the case report. Histopathology images were provided by AM. The final case report was approved by JAK.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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