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Disseminated tuberculous lymphadenitis presenting as cervical mass in patient with HIV infection, worsening after antiretroviral initiation: diagnosis and treatment challenges
  1. Alain Bruno Tagne Nouemssi
  1. Family Medicine Residency Department, NYMC at Saint Joseph Medical Center, Yonkers, NY, United States of America
  1. Correspondence to Dr. Alain Bruno Tagne Nouemssi, dralaintagne{at}


Tuberculosis (TB) continues to represent an important public health challenge in the world and the USA, especially given its association with HIV infection and population migration. Cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis represents the most common extrapulmonary presentation of TB in the USA. Considerations for other causes of neck mass often contribute to delay in diagnosis. In this report, we describe the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with painful swelling of the neck and was diagnosed with tuberculous lymphadenitis, complicated by HIV therapy-associated immune reconstitution syndrome. Prior to this diagnosis, he presented with a chronic intermittent cough, repeatedly treated as bronchitis. Furthermore, TB is a recognised occupational risk for primary care physician, as they are often the first contact for patients. With the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in the USA, the risk is likely to increase with the influx of newly insured often poor,and/or immigrants.

  • primary care
  • Tb and other respiratory infections
  • HIV / AIDS
  • global health
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  • Contributors ABTN researched, drafted and finalised the entirety of the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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