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Bladder agenesis, ectopic ureters and a multicystic dysplastic horseshoe kidney in one twin newborn with normal amniotic fluid index in utero
  1. Marium Naveed Khan1,
  2. William F Walsh2
  1. 1Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
  2. 2Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
  1. Correspondence to Marium Naveed Khan, marium.naveed{at}


A monochorionic-diamniotic twin baby presented with intrauterine growth restriction and anuria. The baby was found to have bladder agenesis, a pelvic dysplastic horseshoe kidney, vertebral anomalies, a ventricular septal defect and facial dysmorphisms. It was surprising to find no abnormalities in amniotic fluid indices prenatally, suggesting the possibility of urine output that declined as the pregnancy proceeded. Some degree of twin-to-twin transfusion of amniotic fluid was also possible, which could have rescued the oligohydramnios known to be associated with kidney and urinary tract abnormalities. It was also notable that there was no abnormality in respiratory function, especially since further investigations revealed close to no kidney function. The intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) along with the multiple anomalies found made the baby unsuitable for dialysis and transplant, and the decision of transition to palliative care was made.

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  • Contributors MK and WW contributed to conception of the study and involved in critical revision. MK involved in data collection and literature review; interpretation and drafting the paper and provided final approval of version to be published. The authors agree to be accountable for all the work that is being submitted, for all of its accuracy and integrity.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.