Psychotic symptoms are rarely documented in association with cortex-sparing central nervous system (CNS) lesions limited to the midbrain. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with hereditary and environmental risk factors for psychiatric illness, as well as a history of midbrain pilocytic astrocytoma treated with chemotherapy and focused radiation, who presented with non-epileptic seizures, hyper-religiosity and frank psychosis. The space-occupying midbrain lesion has been radiographically stable while the patient has decompensated psychiatrically. Differential aetiology for the patient's psychiatric decompensation is discussed, including psychosis secondary to a lesion of the midbrain. Literature linking midbrain lesions to psychotic features, such as in peduncular hallucinosis, is briefly reviewed. This case suggests that a midbrain lesion in a susceptible patient may contribute to psychosis.
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