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Chronic refractory myofascial pain and denervation supersensitivity as global public health disease
  1. J Chu1,
  2. F Bruyninckx2,
  3. D V Neuhauser3
  1. 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
  2. 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Leuven University Hospitals, Leuven, Belgium
  3. 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr J Chu, jchu{at}


Chronic pain with a 30.3% global prevalence significantly impacts universal health. Low back pain has a 9.4% prevalence worldwide causing the most widespread disability. Neck pain ranks 4th highest regarding years lived with disability with a 4.9% prevalence worldwide. The principal cause of pain in 85% of patients visiting a tertiary pain clinic has a myofascial origin. The root cause is multifocal neuromuscular ischaemia at myofascial trigger points from muscle tightening and shortening following spondylotic radiculopathy induced partial denervation. Chronic refractory myofascial pain (CRMP) is a neuromusculoskeletal disease needing management innovations. Using electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (eToims), we provide objective evidence of denervation supersensitivity in multiple myotomes as cause, aggravation and maintenance of CRMP. This study underscores our previous findings that eToims is safe and efficacious for long-term use in CRMP. eToims aids potential prevention (pre-rehabilitation), simultaneous diagnosis, treatment (rehabilitation) and prognosis in real time for acute and CRMP management.

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