Imported leishmaniasis is rare in non-endemic countries such as the UK. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) can be life-threatening and its recognition is imperative for successful clinical management. We present a case of VL in an 11-month-old infant several months after returning from a 1-week holiday trip to the South of Spain. The infant suffered from intermittent fever for 5 weeks, and hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia, and was successfully treated with a short course of liposomal amphotericin B. This case of VL is to highlight the possibility of transmission of unusual pathogens when travelling to the Mediterranean and therefore the importance of taking a detailed travel history. VL should be considered in the differential diagnosis in returning travellers presenting with prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly and/or pancytopenia.
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