There is no established therapeutic option for corticosteroid (CS) refractory drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD). We report a case of CS refractory severe DILD successfully treated with recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhTM). A 64-year-old Japanese man was admitted with symptoms of fever, dry cough and dyspnoea. A chest radiograph showed bilateral infiltrations. DILD from Nijutsutou, a Chinese medicine, was suspected based on a history of similar interstitial lung disease after its administration 4 years prior and a positive drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test. Nijutsutou was promptly discontinued and high doses of CS administered, but the patient's bilateral infiltrations remained unimproved. Since coagulation tests also indicated a rapid aggravation of coagulopathy, rhTM was added to the CS therapy. The patient's lung infiltration ameliorated and plasma levels of D-dimer and high morbidity group box 1 (HMGB1) decreased. rhTM may be an alternative agent for CS refractory DILD. Further study is necessary to confirm this.
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