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Fatal Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome due to Serotype C Neisseria meningitidis in a young HIV negative MSM (men who have sex with men).


Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (fulminant meningococcaemia) is a fulminating infection, often leading to mortality in a matter of hours. In the past 3 years there has been a rise in cases of Neisseria meningitis in the men who have sex with men (MSM) population in the USA and sporadic cases over the world especially in those who are HIV positive. We describe a case of a 34-year-old Caucasian man who presented with acute fulminant meningococcaemia, which proved fatal over a period of hours. This case report emphasises the need for further vigilance, prompt diagnosis and treatment of fulminant meningococcaemia without signs of meningitis especially in the MSM population and the need to expand vaccination recommendations of Meningococcaemia in the MSM population across the USA in both HIV positive and negative males.

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