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Acetic acid iontophoresis for the treatment of insertional Achilles tendonitis
  1. Roger Lee Kilfoil Jr1,
  2. Garry Shtofmakher1,
  3. Gregory Taylor2,
  4. Jessica Botvinick2
  1. 1New York College of Podiatric Medicine, Lake Grove, New York, USA
  2. 2Department of Physical Therapy, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, New York, New York, USA
  1. Correspondence to Garry Shtofmakher, gshtofmakher{at}

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Posterior heel pain is a constellation of pathologies that may include retrocalcaneal bursitis, insertional tendonitis, paratenonitis and tendonosis among others.1 The diagnosis of insertional Achilles tendonitis can be established clinically and radiographically and must be differentiated from retrocalcaneal bursitis and Haglund's deformity.2 Patients present clinically with chronic pain of gradual onset typically relieved when the patient is unshod and it may be painful to perform a single leg raise.3 ,4 Calcaneal exostoses of the Achilles tendon may be evident on radiograph. Exostoses composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) are exposed to the more chemically active acetate radical and replace the carbonate forming the blood soluble calcium acetate molecule (Ca(C3H3O2)2).5

A treatment algorithm has been developed for posterior heel pain.3 Initial therapeutic modalities include physical therapy, orthotic management and anti-inflammatory medications.3 …

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