A woman presented with prelabour premature preterm rupture of membranes and delivered extremely preterm at 26 weeks by caesarean section. Histopathology of the placenta indicated moderately severe histological chorioamnionitis with dense infiltration of the chorionic plate by neutrophils. Two sets of low and high vaginal swabs were taken from the mother. A set sent for microbiological analysis at the hospital yielded negative results. The second set was analysed employing culture-independent high-throughput sequencing methods and revealed significant infections with Campylobacter curvus and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. This is the first report of C. curvus infection in the female genital tract that has been identified in a woman who delivered preterm. The case supports the need to review the standard culture methods employed for microbial analyses in hospitals.
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