Virus-induced rhabdomyolysis rarely induces respiratory failure. We discuss here a case of severe rhabdomyolysis with acute respiratory failure secondary to a cytomegalovirus (CMV) primary infection. We report a case of severe acute rhabdomyolysis, leading to respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation, associated with CMV primary infection in a young and otherwise healthy woman. We excluded other aetiologies such as metabolic myopathies, electrolyte disorders or Guillain-Barré syndrome with exhaustive researches. After 1 year, the patient recovered completely, apart from a slight muscle deconditioning. In this report, we compare our patient with five other similar cases found in the literature; our patient had the most severe presentation. The mechanism of acute viral-induced rhabdomyolysis remains elusive.
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