Strongyloidiasis is caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, which commonly produces gastrointestinal problems. If immune systems are compromised, the nematode larvae may spread and produce Strongyloides hyperinfection. Diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is based on the observation of larvae in coproparasitological studies. We present a case of a 49-year-oldman, VIH, who developed Strongyloides hyperinfection, diagnosed postmortem. Our patient reached the dissemination stage, which resulted in severe damage to the stomach and intestine, perforation of the intestinal wall, as well as sepsis due to the dissemination of bacteria. The diagnosis is difficult because of the low larvae excretion in stools. It is usually performed by the microscopic examination of fresh and fixed enriched stool samples. Serology was reported to be useful for screening and follow-up after treatment. This case reaffirms that HIV immunosuppression favours the dissemination of S stercoralis larvae. Thus, a search for intestinal parasites should be considered in similar cases.
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