Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is defined as Mycobacterium TB through Ziehl–Neelsen acid-fast stain and culture in Loewenstein–Jensen in a tissue from a site other than lung parenchyma, in association with clinical or imaging findings compatible with infection locally. The authors report a case of a patient who presented with asthenia, anorexia and weight loss. He complained of fever, chills and night sweats of 1-week duration. The thoracic scan reveals lymph node enlargement in the left axilla and pleural effusion and the histological study revealed a necrotising granulomatous lymphadenitis. It was decided to initiate antituberculous drugs with a good response. EPTB is a difficult diagnostic because lymph nodes contain few tubercle bacilli, leading to a low sensitivity of smear microscopy detection. The introduction of antituberculous agents is the cornerstone of management of such infections and, occasionally, it is the only way to make a diagnosis.
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