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Findings that shed new light on the possible pathogenesis of a disease or an adverse effect
Dissection of the aorta in Turner syndrome: two cases and review of 85 cases in the literature


Patients with Turner syndrome (TS) are at risk for aortic dissection, but the clinical profile for those at risk is not well described. In addition to reporting two new cases, we performed an electronic search to identify all reported cases of aortic dissection associated with TS. In total, 85 cases of aortic dissection in TS were reported between 1961 and 2006. Dissection occurred at a young age, 30.7 (range 4–64) years, which is significantly earlier than its occurrence in the general female population (68 years). Importantly, in 11% of the cases, neither hypertension nor congenital heart disease were identified, suggesting that TS alone is an independent risk factor for aortic dissection; however, the cases where no risk factors were identified were very poorly documented. A TS aortic dissection registry has been established to determine the natural history and risk factors better (

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