Myeloid sarcoma (MS) of the prostate is very uncommon with only 17 reported cases in the literature. Here, a singular case of a MS of the prostate discovered through investigations for urinary retention and revealing an acute leukaemia classified as an acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) with inversion 16 (inv16) according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification (AML-M4 with inv16 in the French–American–British (FAB) classification) in a 65-year-old man is presented. None of the previously reported and reviewed cases of prostatic MS were of AML-M4 type. Moreover, a translocation t(3;7) was identified in our case. Such a translocation was recently described in some acute myeloid processes. MS treatment consists of combining surgical intervention and chemotherapy. Radiation therapy could be beneficial for the localised disease of the prostate. Allogenic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is also a promising therapy for MS.
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Competing interests: None.