Article Text

Rare disease
Lepromatous leprosy with erythema nodosum leprosum as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in an HIV-1 infected patient after initiation of antiretroviral therapy
  1. Alexia Cusini1,
  2. Huldrych F Günthard1,
  3. Rainer Weber1,
  4. Milo Huber1,
  5. Jivko Kamarashev1,
  6. Barbara Bertisch1,
  7. Silke Peter2,
  8. Bernhard Beck3
  1. 1
    University Hospital Zurich, Division of Infectious Diseases, Rämistrasse 100, Zurich, 8091, Switzerland
  2. 2
    Institute of Microbiology, Gloriastrasse 30/32, Zurich, 8006, Switzerland
  3. 3
    Swiss Tropical Institute, Medical Department, Socinstrasse 57, Basel, 4002, Switzerland
  1. Alexia Cusini, alexia.cusini{at}


We present the case of an HIV infected male patient with erythema nodosum leprosum and function loss of the peroneus nerve as manifestations of lepromatous leprosy. Since symptoms occurred after initiation of antiretroviral therapy and recovery of the immune system, the clinical picture is suggestive of a rare form of an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

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  • Competing interests: None.

  • Patient consent: Patient/guardian consent was obtained for publication.