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Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba spp complicating multidrug-resistant tuberculous meningitis in an immunocompetent individual
  1. Debasis Mondal,
  2. Prantick Kumar Bhunia,
  3. Dipamoy Bhattacharya and
  4. Ashim Sarkar
  1. General Medicine, Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Debasis Mondal; 2015dm5{at}


Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba spp is a rare, near-fatal central nervous system infection. It is often seen in immunocompromised individuals. Here we describe a survivor of this infection who was co-infected with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. He presented to us with features of meningitis and a history of chronic cough. The chest X-ray was classical for pulmonary tuberculosis. Neuroimaging was suggestive of encephalitis; herpes simplex virus PCR was negative. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed lymphocytic pleocytosis. Wet mounts revealed trophozoites of Acanthamoeba. Currently, he is being treated with oral bedaquiline, levofloxacin, linezolid, clofazimine, cycloserine and pyridoxine for tuberculosis. He received intravenous amikacin and oral cotrimoxazole and fluconazole for Acanthamoeba infection for 1 month. The resolution was confirmed by repeating the CSF wet mount, culture and neuroimaging. He was then discharged with oral rifampicin, cotrimoxazole and fluconazole. He is currently under our close follow-up.

  • Meningitis
  • Tropical medicine (infectious disease)
  • Drugs: infectious diseases
  • Infection (neurology)
  • Tuberculosis

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  • Contributors The following authors were responsible for drafting of the text, sourcing and editing of clinical images, investigation results, drawing original diagrams and algorithms and critical revision for important intellectual content: DM, PKB, DB and AS. The following authors gave final approval of the manuscript: DM, PKB, DB and AS.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Case reports provide a valuable learning resource for the scientific community and can indicate areas of interest for future research. They should not be used in isolation to guide treatment choices or public health policy.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.