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Haemophagocytic syndrome caused by disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection
  1. Laura Baldovino Chiquillo1,
  2. Daniela Lucía Rico2,3,
  3. Drixie Dalyla Leal3 and
  4. Martha Romero4
  1. 1School of Medicine, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia
  2. 2Universidad El Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia
  3. 3Department of Internal Medicine, Fundacion Santa Fe de Bogotá, Bogotá, Colombia
  4. 4Department of Pathology, Fundacion Santa Fe de Bogotá, Bogotá, Colombia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Daniela Lucía Rico; dricob{at}


A female patient in her 30s presented to the emergency department with a 10-day history of fever, weakness and diaphoresis. Subsequent investigations revealed a diagnosis of haemophagocytic syndrome, secondary to disseminated non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection affecting the bone marrow, lungs, lymph nodes and skin. The bone marrow culture confirmed the presence of Mycobacterium avium infection. The patient’s haemophagocytic syndrome was managed using the HLH-2004 chemoimmunotherapy, and M. avium infection was treated with a combination of clarithromycin, ethambutol, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin and amikacin. Throughout her hospitalisation, the patient faced several serious complications arising from both the medications and the prolonged hospital stay (lasting 12 months). However, these complications were promptly identified and effectively managed through a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach. This approach was crucial in achieving a favourable patient outcome and successful recovery.

  • Haematology (drugs and medicines)
  • Drugs: infectious diseases
  • Infectious diseases
  • TB and other respiratory infections

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  • Contributors The patient was under the care of DDL. LBC, DLR, MR and DDL contributed to the manuscript by drafting of the text, sourcing and editing of clinical images, and investigation results, and revising and editing the text. LBC and DDL also contributed by drawing original diagrams and algorithms.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Case reports provide a valuable learning resource for the scientific community and can indicate areas of interest for future research. They should not be used in isolation to guide treatment choices or public health policy.

  • Competing interests The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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