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Reconstructive cranial surgery for invasive and non-responsive mucormycosis
  1. Preetham Dange1,
  2. Nazrin Hameed2,
  3. Ravi Sankar2 and
  4. Ved Prakash Maurya1
  1. 1Neurosurgery, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
  2. 2Neuro-otology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ved Prakash Maurya; vpmsurgery{at}


The incidence of mucormycosis showed a sharp rise during the COVID-19 pandemic in vulnerable populations like people with diabetes. Here, we report a case of mucormycosis of the frontal and ethmoid sinuses in a man in his mid-50s with a background of diabetes mellitus and COVID-19 infection requiring steroids and oxygen support. The infection had remained persistent despite initial debridement by functional endoscopic sinus surgery of the anterior frontal sinus wall and re-exploration, followed by debridement using the brow incision. The patient had received an entire course of systemic antifungal therapy during the postoperative period. A bifrontal craniotomy, excision of the supraorbital ridge and complete removal of bilateral frontal sinuses managed the persistent fungal infection. The defect was reconstructed with a custom-made three-dimensional-printed MRI-compatible titanium cranioplasty mesh. The patient had no signs of infection on the 9-month follow-up.

  • Diabetes
  • COVID-19
  • Otolaryngology / ENT

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  • Contributors The following authors were responsible for drafting of the text, sourcing and editing of clinical images, investigation results, drawing original diagrams and algorithms, and critical revision for important intellectual content: PD, NH, RS and VPM.The following authors gave final approval of the manuscript: RS and VPM.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Case reports provide a valuable learning resource for the scientific community and can indicate areas of interest for future research. They should not be used in isolation to guide treatment choices or public health policy.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.