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Sarcoidosis of the lacrimal gland: the prominence of the differential diagnosis
  1. Guido Gabriele,
  2. Flavia Cascino,
  3. Linda Latini and
  4. Paolo Gennaro
  1. Maxillo-Facial Unit, Department of Mental Health and Sense Organs, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Senese “Santa Maria alle Scotte”, Siena, Italy
  1. Correspondence to Professor Guido Gabriele; guido.gabriele{at}


Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease that can involve any organ; lungs, lymph nodes and skin are the most involved. Compatible clinical and imaging features, the identification of non-caseous granulomas on biopsy and the exclusion of other causes of granulomatous disorders help formulate the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. A bilateral symmetrical hilar lymphadenopathy together with the typical perilymphatic distribution of nodules is typically visible on high-resolution CT.The average age is 48 years. Ocular sarcoidosis is not rare, it is reported in 25% of cases. Half of the sarcoidosis patients resolve spontaneously; treatment is only indicated in cases with severe symptoms or signs of organ damage. Classical treatments are based on the use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapies, sometimes combined.

  • Oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • COVID-19
  • Interstitial lung disease

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  • Contributors The following authors were responsible for drafting of the text, sourcing and editing of clinical images, investigation results, drawing original diagrams and algorithms, and critical revision for important intellectual content: LL, GG and FC. The following authors gave final approval of the manuscript: PG.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Case reports provide a valuable learning resource for the scientific community and can indicate areas of interest for future research. They should not be used in isolation to guide treatment choices or public health policy.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.