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Atypical mycobacterial infection masquerading as an endobronchial growth in an immunocompromised host
  1. Arun Rajan Thomas1,
  2. Virender Pratibh Prasad1,
  3. Shweta Sethi2 and
  4. Venkata Nagarjuna Maturu1
  1. 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Yashoda Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  2. 2Department of Pathology, Yashoda Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Venkata Nagarjuna Maturu; arjunjipmer{at}


Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms. Endobronchial growth as a presenting feature of NTM disease is uncommon. Here we present a case of a patient with retroviral disease on antiretroviral therapy, presenting with cough, wheezing and exertional dyspnoea. High-resolution CT showed a partial obstruction of the left main bronchus (LMB). Bronchoscopy showed an endobronchial growth in the distal LMB. An endobronchial biopsy showed non-necrotising granulomas; bronchial wash for acid-fast bacilli was positive and culture grew Mycobacterium avium complex. He was treated with a combination therapy of clarithromycin, rifampicin and ethambutol. Repeat bronchoscopy after 6 weeks of therapy showed complete resolution of the endobronchial growth.

  • Respiratory system
  • HIV / AIDS
  • TB and other respiratory infections

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  • Contributors ART managed the patient and drafted the manuscript. VPP managed the patient, performed the biopsy and drafted the manuscript. SS performed the histopathology examination. VNM managed the patient, and reviewed and revised the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Case reports provide a valuable learning resource for the scientific community and can indicate areas of interest for future research. They should not be used in isolation to guide treatment choices or public health policy.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.