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Neovascular glaucoma with combined retinal vascular occlusion in carotid cavernous fistula


Carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs) can present with varied ophthalmic manifestations. The most important vision-threatening complications of CCF include glaucoma and retinal vascular occlusions. We report a case of a man in his early 30s who developed a post-traumatic direct CCF. The patient denied undergoing embolisation therapy. This resulted in aggravation of his condition with onset of combined retinal venous and artery occlusion leading to neovascular glaucoma and severe vision loss. He was treated with medical management followed by diode laser photocoagulation to control intraocular pressure. Diagnostic cerebral angiography done 3 months later showed complete closure of the fistula; hence, no further intervention was advocated. Combined vascular occlusion is a rare vision-threatening occurrence in cases of CCF. Timely intervention with closure of the fistula can prevent the development of vision-threatening complications.

  • Glaucoma
  • Retina
  • Trauma CNS /PNS
  • Neuroimaging
  • Interventional radiology

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