Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncommon in the USA, and when it is diagnosed, it is usually in adult patients with identifiable risk factors presenting with pulmonary manifestations of the disease. Paediatric tuberculosis is rare, and a minority of those cases can present with isolated extrapulmonary infection. When the musculoskeletal system is involved, there are often no constitutional symptoms, and it can resemble other infectious and inflammatory processes. Diagnosis is challenging, and delay leads to irreversible destructive osteoarticular changes. A prompt diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. This report presents a case of successfully diagnosed paediatric M. tuberculosis monoarthritis of the knee to highlight these challenges.
- Bone and joint infections
- TB and other respiratory infections
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Contributors The following authors were responsible for drafting the text, sourcing and editing of clinical images, investigation results, drawing original diagrams and algorithms and critical revision for important intellectual content: JRR, JMS, KRB and LAL. The following authors gave final approval of the manuscript: JRR, JMS, KRB and LAL.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Case reports provide a valuable learning resource for the scientific community and can indicate areas of interest for future research. They should not be used in isolation to guide treatment choices or public health policy.
Competing interests No relevant disclosures. Keith Bachmann receives consulting fees from Depuy Synthes and Stryker spine.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.