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Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a case report of multiple metachronous oral verrucous carcinoma
  1. Niccolò Lombardi,
  2. Elena Maria Varoni,
  3. Roberto Franchini and
  4. Giovanni Lodi
  1. Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Chirurgiche e Odontoiatriche, Universita' degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
  1. Correspondence to Dr Elena Maria Varoni; elena.varoni{at}


Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a distinct progressive and multi-focal form of oral leukoplakia, not associated with the traditional risk factors (ie, tobacco and alcohol consumption). The incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma in PVL patients is high. Here, we describe the case of a patient affected by PVL, who developed two metachronous oral verrucous carcinomas at different sites of the oral mucosa. Owing to the high risk of multiple oral squamous cell carcinoma, periodical clinical and histopathological follow-up is mandatory and should continue lifelong.

  • Dentistry and oral medicine
  • Mouth

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  • Contributors NL, RF, GL contributed to follow the patients. NL, EMV collected clinical data. NL wrote the draft of the manuscript. EMV revised the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Case reports provide a valuable learning resource for the scientific community and can indicate areas of interest for future research. They should not be used in isolation to guide treatment choices or public health policy.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.