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Xanthogranulomatous inflammation and spindle cell proliferation in response to silicone breast implant leakage


This case study highlights the rare complications of silicone breast implants, as well as the diagnostic limitations of imaging. The patient initially presented with leakage of bilateral breast implants as discovered by a positron emission tomography (PET)-computerized tomography (CT) scan performed as part of a workup for small bowel Langerhans cell sarcoma metastases. The imaging results of the PET-CT scan revealed increased activity bilaterally with an enhancing, irregular, heterogeneously enhancing mass in the right breast. Given the clinical suspicion for breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma, further investigation including surgical excision was undertaken. What initially was a concern for a serious complication of long-standing breast implants, fortuitously turned out to be a benign but exuberant xanthogranulomatous inflammatory reactive process. We hope that our report will add to the literature of this rare phenomenon and highlight it as a differential diagnosis of a mass in association with breast implants.

  • Breast cancer
  • Breast surgery
  • Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • Surgical oncology
  • Pathology

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