Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in a female adolescent with favourable response to second-line treatment with cyclophosphamide


We report the case of a female adolescent who presented with behavioural changes. She was admitted to our institution due to worsening psychiatric and neurological symptoms, subsequently diagnosed with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis. Additional workup was facilitated to rule out a possible underlying teratoma, but all tests turned out unremarkable. First-line treatment with methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin was started, to which she showed marked improvement from baseline. One month after discharge, a decision for readmission was made because of persistent episodes of hallucinations, agitation and dyskinesias. In this case report, we highlight the use of cyclophosphamide over rituximab as second-line treatment in a resource-limited setting, owing to its greater availability and lesser cost. Cyclophosphamide treatment was given resulting in a more sustained clinical improvement with return to baseline function.

  • Neurology
  • Paediatrics

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.