Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in paediatric patients and may arise as a primary orbital neoplasm. Imaging studies show a unilateral solitary orbital lesion. With larger tumours, erosion of the adjacent orbital walls is a common accompanying bony change. We present an unusual case of rhabdomyosarcoma in a preschool girl with proptosis and temporal bossing. Imaging studies showed a homogeneous, well-delineated, extraconal mass of the right orbit with hyperostosis of the adjacent sphenoid bone. After excision of the mass and debulking of the sphenoid bone, histopathology showed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with no malignant infiltration of the adjacent bone. This is the first reported case of hyperostosis associated with rhabdomyosarcoma. Periosteal reaction is the proposed underlying mechanism.
- Paediatric oncology
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Contributors PNAR was the primary Ophthalmology physician-in-charge of patient care, monitoring and follow-up. He gathered data, reviewed literature, wrote all versions of the paper. FKTR was the physician consultant involved in patient care, monitoring, surgical and clinical management and follow-up. She reviewed the paper content and revised all drafts of the paper. MRP-Y was the physician consultant involved in patient care and monitoring. She reviewed the paper content and revised all drafts of the paper.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Case reports provide a valuable learning resource for the scientific community and can indicate areas of interest for future research. They should not be used in isolation to guide treatment choices or public health policy.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.