While infection should always lead the differential when a patient with AIDS presents with fever, inflammatory and malignant aetiologies should also be considered. With profound immunocompromise, malignancies can develop as sequelae of viral oncogene expression. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection drives several AIDS-related cancers including Kaposi sarcoma (KS), multicentric Castleman disease and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which can present simultaneously with variable clinical features. Herein, we describe a case of synchronous visceral KS and extracavitary PEL in a patient with AIDS. The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy and remains in remission after four cycles. We review other cases of copresenting HHV-8-related malignancies, explore the salient pathomechanisms and clinical features of these cancers and discuss treatment strategies.
- HIV / AIDS
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Contributors The impetus and planning of this report was done as a coordinated effort. Medical student SB performed the majority of the literature search and writing of the article. AR was responsible for guiding the project, performing multiple rounds of review and edits, and serves as the guarantor for the published article. SB and AR were both on the team caring for this patient while they were admitted to the hospital. EO provided the histological slides, as well as their interpretation. EO also assisted with addressing reviewer comments related to the histological findings.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Case reports provide a valuable learning resource for the scientific community and can indicate areas of interest for future research. They should not be used in isolation to guide treatment choices or public health policy.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.