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Testicular myeloid sarcoma: a relapse of acute myeloid leukaemia after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation- a rare presentation
  1. Shanawaz Alam,
  2. Velmurugan Palaniyandy,
  3. Chandru Thirunavukkarasu and
  4. Natarajan Kumaresan
  1. Urology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Natarajan Kumaresan; drknatarajan{at}


Myeloid sarcoma is an uncommon pathological diagnosis of proliferation of blasts of one or more of the myeloid lineages in regions other than the blood and bone marrow. Myeloid sarcoma of the testis after allogeneic bone marrow stem cell transplantation is very rare and only few cases are reported in the literature. It is usually misdiagnosed as malignant lymphoma, particularly with large cell lymphoma, due to similar histological morphology. Due to difficulty in diagnosis, it is suggested that an appropriate panel of immunohistochemical marker studies be performed in conjunction with clinical correlation to avoid misleading diagnosis and improper treatment of patients. We report an interesting case of a 49-year-old man with a diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukaemia. He had undergone allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, achieved complete molecular remission and later relapsed with myeloid sarcoma of the testis.

  • haematology (incl blood transfusion)
  • malignant and benign haematology
  • urological cancer

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  • Contributors SA was involved in manuscript preparation and assisted in surgery. VP revised and corrected the manuscript. CT and NK are the primary surgeons involved in the surgery.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.