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Mechanical stress-related haemolysis in a paediatric haemodialysis patient

Abstract

Haemodialysis (HD) is a common kidney replacement therapy (KRT) used in the management of children with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). We describe the case of a 2-year-old child who developed mechanical intraluminal haemolytic anaemia secondary to the acute angulation of the HD line. In contrast to reports of arteriovenous fistula-associated haemolysis, onset was insidious in nature and detected through review of subtle serial biochemical and haematological changes. Development of hyperbilirubinaemia during HD was modest due to the partial clearance of bilirubin via HD-enabled diffusion. The only persistent and consistent marker was the post-HD rise in lactate dehydrogenase in association with decreasing haemoglobin. We propose that mechanical stress-induced haemolysis should be considered in children on HD who develop unexplained or persistent anaemia with resistance to increasing doses of iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent supplementation.

  • paediatrics
  • renal medicine
  • renal intervention
  • haematology (incl blood transfusion)

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