Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder that causes decreased immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. It affects B lymphocyte differentiation, resulting in predominantly bacterial and less frequently viral, fungal, and protozoal infections. The respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts where antibody defences are essential are usually affected. Individuals with CVID are also predisposed to developing lymphoid and gastrointestinal malignancies. We present two cases with rare infectious and oncological complications of CVID, including a patient with Mycobacterium avium complex-intracellular infection and ovarian cancer, and another patient with group B Streptococcus empyema of the lung with acute myeloid leukaemia. The main objective of this study is to highlight how CVID-induced hypogammaglobulinaemia can lead to rare infections and malignancies. The management of these complications can vary according to severity, but an awareness of their existence is crucial to diagnose them promptly in an already immunocompromised CVID patient.
- TB and other respiratory infections
- Malignant and Benign haematology
- Gynecological cancer
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Contributors AA: drafting the work, revising it critically for important intellectual content, interpretation of data for the work. SA: acquisition and analysis of data for the work, final approval of the version to be published. JNG: conception and design of the work, acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data for the work, final approval of the version to be published. All authors have an agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. There are no other contributors apart from the listed authors.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Case reports provide a valuable learning resource for the scientific community and can indicate areas of interest for future research. They should not be used in isolation to guide treatment choices or public health policy.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.