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Acute retinal ischaemia associated with paracentral acute middle maculopathy detected on multimodal imaging: a premonitory sign of severe carotid occlusive disease


A man in his 60s presented with a subacute paracentral scotoma and preserved visual acuity in the left eye. He was found to have a very subtle area of deep retinal whitening at the macula and multiple retinal cholesterol emboli. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) with En face imaging revealed globular paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM). A diagnosis of PAMM associated with branch artery occlusion was made and the patient was immediately transferred to the nearest stroke centre. Investigations revealed severe carotid occlusive disease for which the patient underwent carotid endarterectomy. Paracentral scotomas in patients with little clinical findings on fundus examination should raise the suspicion for PAMM, which is easily identifiable on OCT. Eye care professionals must recognise PAMM as a possible sign of acute retinal arterial ischaemia—an ocular and systemic emergency that requires immediate referral to specialised stroke centres.

  • Macula
  • Retina
  • Neuroopthalmology
  • Stroke

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