This is the first report of upper urinary tract (UUT) perforation secondary to tranexamic acid (TXA) induced ureteric clot obstruction. A 77-year-old woman was referred to the urology department with intermittent, painless visible haematuria from a lesion in the right upper calyx, suspicious of urothelial cell carcinoma. She did not have any flank pain or blood clots in her urine. Preoperatively, her haemoglobin level dropped from 113 g/L to 95 g/L and was prescribed oral TXA by her general practitioner, which led to extensive clot formation within the right kidney and ureter resulting in pain and ureteric obstruction. At ureteroscopy, a large ureteric blood clot was extracted and perforation close to the tumour with resultant urinary extravasation was noted. The patient subsequently underwent a successful nephroureterectomy, but risk of potential perforation-related complications such as tumour seeding, sepsis and urinoma formation could have been avoided. TXA in haematuria from the UUT should be strongly discouraged due to the risk of ureteric clot obstruction and UUT perforation.
- contraindications and precautions
- urinary and genital tract disorders
- urological cancer
- urological surgery
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Contributors JFD: acquisition of consent, imaging and photos and manuscript review. GM: data collation, literature review and author of manuscript. JR: manuscript review.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Case reports provide a valuable learning resource for the scientific community and can indicate areas of interest for future research. They should not be used in isolation to guide treatment choices or public health policy.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.