A 15-year-old girl was admitted to emergency department with an acute flaccid tetraparesis with no other symptoms. A history of recurrent similar episodes with spontaneous recovery was reported and no family history was known. Laboratory tests revealed severe hypokalaemia and hypokaluria. Symptoms resolution occurred after potassium replacement. The diagnosis of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (HPP) was confirmed by genetic testing, which revealed a not previously described mutation in CACNA1S gene (c.3715C>G p.Arg1239Gly). HPP is a rare neuromuscular disorder that causes episodic attacks of flaccid paralysis with concomitant hypokalaemia. Primary forms of the disease are skeletal muscle ion channelopathies. HPP occurs due to a problem in potassium distribution rather than a total body potassium deficiency. Therefore potassium replacement should be carefully performed because of the risk of rebound hyperkalaemia. Knowing this rare entity is important in order to avoid diagnostic delays and so that proper treatment can be initiated to reduce morbidity and mortality.
- muscle disease
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