A 48-year-old woman presented with sudden-onset altered sensorium 2 days after a snake bite (unidentified species) and was found to have a large right frontal intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) with transtentorial herniation (TTH) causing brain stem compression. A day later, neurological examination revealed internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) fitting the clinical description of wall eyed bilateral INO syndrome. INO is a rare ocular motor sign, the most common causes being brain stem infarction, haemorrhage or demyelinating disease. It rarely acts as a false localising sign, such as in this case, and in an even rarer cause for ICH, that is, haemotoxic snake bite without initial evidence of coagulopathy. An emphasis needs to be laid on detailed physical examination, often considered a lost art nowadays, to help detect subtle clinical signs which could herald ominous complications of conditions like TTH and help in early diagnosis and treatment of the same.
- brain stem / cerebellum
- emergency medicine
- cranial nerves
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Contributors SS: submitting author-primary role in evaluation, diagnosis and management of patient along with detailed literature review and construction of case report. BBN: guided in diagnosis and decision making as part of the medical team caring for the patient. Reviewed the manuscript in detail and helped edit and revise it. JG: head of the primary team caring for the patient. Scientific advisor and helped with literature search and editing the case report.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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