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Saline contrast echocardiography complements cardiac interventions in neonates with transposition of great arteries and abnormal ductus venosus anatomy
  1. Monika Kantilal Kotecha,
  2. Jonathan, Tze Liang Choo and
  3. Sreekanthan Sundararaghavan
  1. KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore
  1. Correspondence to Dr Sreekanthan Sundararaghavan; sreekanthan.sundaraghavan{at}


We present a rare case of premature low birthweight neonate with right diaphragmatic hernia and transposition of great vessels requiring balloon atrial septostomy. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia poses a unique challenge to umbilical venous catheterisation. Based on the radiographic position of umbilical vein catheter, umbilical venous cannulation was attempted; however, the catheter could not be navigated to the right atrium. Saline contrast echocardiography was used to delineate the abnormal umbilical and ductus venosus drainage. Eventually, the procedure was successfully completed via the femoral venous approach. We emphasise the importance of defining ductus venosus anatomy and umbilical venous drainage using a simple tool like saline contrast echocardiography before performing catheterisation using the umbilical venous access in such cases.

  • neonatal intensive care
  • interventional cardiology
  • clinical diagnostic tests
  • congenital disorders
  • ultrasonography

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  • Contributors MKK contributed to the patient’s management, including acquiring echocardiography images, and drafted and revised the manuscript, including the literature search, figures and references. JTLC contributed to patient care, performed echocardiography, reviewed and revised the manuscript, and added important intellectual content. SS performed the balloon atrial septostomy, conceptualised the idea, and critically reviewed and revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.