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Oesophagomediastinal fistula: a rare complication of tuberculosis
  1. Maurizio Nedkov Gambin,
  2. Sarah Marie Vella,
  3. Chantal Vella and
  4. John Schembri
  1. Department of Medicine, Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta
  1. Correspondence to Dr Maurizio Nedkov Gambin; mebemau{at}


We report a case of a woman from Thailand, living in Malta, who was diagnosed with concomitant tuberculosis (TB) and HIV with depleted CD4 count. Her case was further complicated by the formation of a fistula between the mediastinal lymph nodes and the oesophagus, an unusual finding but for which she had many risk factors. The diagnosis was suspected on CT scan of the thorax and confirmed via upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Following the commencement of both anti-TB and antiretroviral therapy, she suffered a lapse of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome but with aggressive medical management eventually made a full recovery without the need for surgical intervention.

  • HIV / AIDS
  • TB and other respiratory infections
  • oesophagus

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  • Contributors MNG was responsible for the literature review and manuscript preparation. SMV, CV and JS contributed towards review and editing of the final manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.