A 13-year-old girl with perinatally acquired HIV infection was admitted to us with acute onset, right-sided hemiparesis of 30 days duration and right-sided myoclonic jerks of 2 days duration affecting the face, upper and lower limbs. On examination, she exhibited increased tone and a pyramidal pattern of weakness in her right upper and lower limbs, along with spontaneous multifocal myoclonic jerks in the affected area. IgG levels in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid for measles were significantly elevated. Brain MRI depicted T2-weighted-hyperintensities in the subcortical white matter. The electroencephalogram demonstrated evidence of lateralised long interval periodic discharges. This patient had no past behavioural problems or poor academic performance. This case underlines the fact that, though subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic disease, a rare fulminant form of SSPE might develop acutely and atypically, with an increased proclivity for HIV-infected patients.
- infection (neurology)
- HIV / AIDS
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Contributors Conception or design of the work: TAV, HRG, RPJ, MP. Data collection: TAV, HRG, RPJ, MP. Data analysis and interpretation: TAV, HRG, RPJ, MP. Drafting the article: TAV, HRG, RPJ, MP. Critical revision of the article: TAV, HRG, RPJ, MP. Final approval of the version to be published: TAV, HRG, RPJ, MP.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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