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Case of sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor-associated euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis


Following non-elective orthopaedic surgery, a 61-year-old man with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus on empagliflozin developed high anion gap metabolic acidosis in the high-dependency unit. Metabolic acidosis persisted despite intravenous sodium bicarbonate, contributing to tachycardia and a run of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. He was euglycaemic throughout hospital admission. Investigations revealed elevated urine and capillary ketones, and a diagnosis of sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor-associated euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis was made. He was treated with an intravenous sliding scale insulin infusion and concurrent dextrose 5% with potassium chloride. Within 24 hours of treatment, his arterial pH, anion gap and serum bicarbonate levels normalised. After a further 12 hours, the intravenous insulin infusion was converted to a basal/bolus regimen of subcutaneous insulin, and he was transferred to the general ward. He was discharged well on subcutaneous insulin 6 days postoperatively.

  • endocrine system
  • unwanted effects/adverse reactions

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