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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a rare clinical presentation of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria


L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a rare autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L2HGDH) enzyme. Dystonia, ataxia, pyramidal involvement and seizures are the common clinical manifestations. Coexisting behavioural problems and intellectual disability are also seen, however attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as the presenting clinical feature in L2HGA is rarely described. Here, we report a 5-year-old boy with behavioural problems and mild language delay. On clinical assessment, he fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. His MR brain sequences showed classical finding of L2HGA—bilateral symmetrical T2-weighted hyperintensity involving subcortical white matter, basal ganglia and dentate nucleus. Urine analysis showed increased levels of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid and exome sequencing (targeted leukodystrophy panel) revealed homozygous likely pathogenic mutation in L2HGDH. He was started on high dose of riboflavin and levocarnitine and rehabilitative measures with which he had improvement in behavioural symptoms. This case illustrates the pivotol role of MR brain imaging in the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism.

  • genetics
  • neurogenetics
  • neuroimaging
  • vitamins and supplements
  • Developmental paediatrics

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